Copper supplementation restores cytochrome c oxidase assembly defect in amitochondrial disease model of COA6 deficiency

In general, mitochondrial myopathies are neuromuscular disorders caused by dysfunctional mitochondria. When mitochondria function incorrectly, ATP is not produced, and the cell suffers. With enough cells suffering, an organism can have widespread problems, resulting in systemic failures. Unfortunately, mitochondrial diseases are very promiscuous, and individual mutations in many different proteins can cause each classified disease. … Read moreCopper supplementation restores cytochrome c oxidase assembly defect in amitochondrial disease model of COA6 deficiency

The Role of Transition Metal Transporters for Iron, Zinc, Manganese, and Copper in the Pathogenesis of Yersinia pestis

The plague is caused by the bacteria Yersinia pestis.  Infected rats carry the disease and pass it to fleas, the disease vector.  The bacteria grow in the fleas’ abdomen and are passed to humans through a flea bite.  There are three types of the plague; bubonic, septicemic and pneumonic.  The bubonic plague has an early … Read moreThe Role of Transition Metal Transporters for Iron, Zinc, Manganese, and Copper in the Pathogenesis of Yersinia pestis

Loss of HIF2α in the Lung Alveolar Epithelium of Mice Leads to Enhanced Eosinophilic Inflammation in Cobalt-Induced Lung Injury

Hard metal lung disease (HMLD) is a rare illness caused by chronic exposure to cobalt and tungsten carbide. HMLD is most commonly developed by people who work in industries that use heavy metal tools that are ground down, heated, or both, releasing heavy metal particles into the air which can be inhaled. Cobalt is a … Read moreLoss of HIF2α in the Lung Alveolar Epithelium of Mice Leads to Enhanced Eosinophilic Inflammation in Cobalt-Induced Lung Injury

Heme Oxygenase-1 Protects Astroglia Against Manganese-Induced Oxidative Injury By Regulating Mitochondrial Quality Control

Manganism is a disease that arises as a direct result of long term exposure to high levels of Manganese. It is characterized by deposition of Manganese in the brain, and results in mitochondrial dysfunction. The most common treatment is removal from the area with high Manganese exposure, but this doesn’t work for everyone. Luckily, it’s … Read moreHeme Oxygenase-1 Protects Astroglia Against Manganese-Induced Oxidative Injury By Regulating Mitochondrial Quality Control

Regulation of iron homeostasis by the hypoxia-inducible transcription factors (HIFs)

Of the metals we have been learning about in this course, Iron (Fe) is one of the most important metals that we all utilize in our everyday biological functions and our bodies need to keep a good balance in order for our bodies to function correctly. According to the World Health Organization (WHO), iron deficiency … Read moreRegulation of iron homeostasis by the hypoxia-inducible transcription factors (HIFs)

Zinc deficiency causes neural tube defects through attenuation of p53 ubiquitylation

Neural tube defects (NTDs) are the second most common birth defect worldwide and can occur do to environmental factors like micronutrition. Deficiencies in folic acid concentrations have been heavily associated with human NTDs due to neurulation’s dependency on the methionine cycle and folate cycle. Neurulation is the formation of the nervous system from the ectoderm … Read moreZinc deficiency causes neural tube defects through attenuation of p53 ubiquitylation

Hemochromatosis and Iron Overload

Hereditary hemochromatosis (HH) is known as an iron overload disease because too much iron ends up being absorbed from the diet and is stored inappropriately in many organs. Since iron is a reactive metal, this can be dangerous and cause failure of these organs. There are multiple types of HH which are caused by different … Read moreHemochromatosis and Iron Overload

Mutations in ZIP-ECD impairs zinc uptake into endosomal keratinocytes and causes Acrodermatitis Enteropathica

Zinc ions (Zn2+) are ingested through diet and can be found in a variety of foods – including the water supply. Zinc is the second most common transition metal ion found in the body (below iron) and is used as a cofactor in hundreds of proteins – including DNA-binding zinc-finger domains and carbonic anhydrase (converts … Read moreMutations in ZIP-ECD impairs zinc uptake into endosomal keratinocytes and causes Acrodermatitis Enteropathica

Parkinson’s Disease and Copper Metabolism

Parkinson’s Disease is a brain disorder which is caused by decreased levels of dopamine and the resulting degeneration of the neurons in the substantia nigra of the brain. Physical effects of Parkinson’s Disease include shaking, stiffness, issues with balance and coordination, memory loss and even dementia. As early as 175 AD, Parkinson’s disease has been … Read moreParkinson’s Disease and Copper Metabolism

Alzheimer’s Disease

Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disorder that accounts for approximately 80% of all dementia diagnoses. As we age, it is normal to notice a slight decrease in cognitive ability, for example, we may forget where we place our glasses or where we park our cars. However, dementia is different than benign senescent forgetfulness in … Read moreAlzheimer’s Disease